The Stations of the Cross mark fourteen stages in the death of Christ - from condemnation to crucifixtion to burial. Indeed, it has very strong usage among Catholics.
The Stations originated in Jeruslam. In the centuries that followed the death of Christ, pilgrams would walk the streets in which Jesus carried the cross.
These streets are known as Via Dolorosa - the way of pain.
As Christianity expanded, the fourteen stations were depicted around Churches and monasteries. Today they are depicted in almost every Catholic Church (I've seen the stations represented in both stain glass windows, and as plaques on the walls).
Catholics consider the stations a way to contemplate the life and suffering of Jesus. Typically, one would move from station to station and pray at each one.
For a detailed analysis and depiction of each station, check out this web site.
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