This is fairly hopeless since you're never going to get agreement on what exactly constitutes good production so people are probably just going to nominate their favourite album, as I'm about to do. In terms of sheer innovation and influentialness (now a word, I know), I'm going with Low.
I don't think the early 70s albums were that well produced. TMWTW is a bit of a mess, and Hunky Dory is dated. I share Bowie's reservations on a lot of the Ziggy mixing. Aladdin is probably the best of those early ones, but there are some duffers there too. Diamond Dogs is good though, maybe because Bowie took more direct control, and Young Americans is flawless.
Most of the 80s albums are very much of their time productionwise. Of the more recent ones, Buddha has a certain lofi charm but isn't polished enough. The production is possibly the weakest aspect of Outside, even Eno doesn't rate it. Earthling is an absolute gem productionwise though: most "electronicaesque" albums end up sounding too muddled (as does Outside), but Earthling avoids this trap. Hours sounds like it started as a fairly cheap and cheerful game soundtrack and even the insertion of Plati late in the day couldn't save it. Heathen and Reality are both well-produced without ever quite hitting excellence. So of the recent albums, productionwise, I'd say only Earthling rivals Young Americans, Low, Scary, and Let's Dance (very of its time, but also undeniably Best Of Breed).
Living means accepting the loss of one joy after another Vladimir Nabokov